The Water and Sanitation Sector is one of the fourteen sectors in Samoa under the Government Planning initiative. It is one of the priority sectors as it directly impacts on the quality of life of the people and overall productivity of the population.
In 2005, Samoa has undertaken a wide-ranging reform of the water sector and established a comprehensive institutional framework with the aim of ensuring both water resources and services are provided and managed with increased efficiency and cost effectiveness. The Sector-Wide Approach was adopted and used by the Sector since then which successfully brought together the Government, its Development Partners and key stakeholders including the public and private sectors, NGOs and civil society groups to achieve the common outcomes and priorities
The European Union remains as the Water and Sanitation Sector's main development and most trusted partner for over 10 years and continuing, with well over 100 million tala of development assistance to date.
The works, activities and developments of the Water and Sanitation Sector is guided through a 4 year sector planning process with its most recent and 3rd edition of the Water and Sanitation "Water for Life" Sector Plan 2016-2020 completed. These Plans aim to ensure “Reliable, clean, affordable water and improved sanitation within the framework of Integrated Water Resource Management for a resilient Samoa, sustaining health and alleviating poverty”. The achievement of this Sector Long Term Outcome will greatly contribute towards the realisation of the renewed vision of Samoa's national development plan "Strategy for the Development of Samoa 2016/2017- 2019/2020;; "Improved Quality of Life for All"and theme; "Accelerating Sustainable Developments and Broadening Opportunities for All". Moreover, this will further contribute significantly to the achievement of the relevant Sustainable Development Goals namely SDG6 and the SAMOA Pathway
As such, six (6) End-of-Sector-Plan-Outcomes (ESPOs) have been identified to achieve the Sector's Long Term Outcome. The Water and Sanitation Sector Coordination Division (WSSSCD) within the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MNRE) is responsible for the overall coordination of the sector wide programmes based on these ESPOs as follows:
- Strengthen sector governance to guide and sustain sector developments
- Improve watershed management and reliability of water resource data through integrated water resource management;
- Increase access and improved provision of reliable, clean and affordable water supply;
- Improve surveillance of drinking water quality and water borne diseases
- Increase access to improved basic sanitation and hygiene practices
- Strengthen effectiveness of flood mitigation measures to reduce incidence and magnitude of flooding in the CBD.
There are ten (10) Implementing Agencies (IAs) under the Water and Sanitation Programme, four (4) of which are Government Ministries including:
- Ministry of Natural Resources (Water Resources Division, Division of Environment & conservation, Renewable Energy Division, Planning and Urban Management Agency)
- Ministry of Women, Community and Social Development
- Ministry of Health
- Ministry of Works, Transport and Infrastructure
Three (3) are Government Corporations/ State Owned Enterprises being;
And three (3) Non Governmental Organisations being;
- Independent Water Schemes Association
- Plumbers Association of Samoa
- Samoa Red Cross Society
In addition, the Water and Sanitation Sector works in collaboration with its stakeholders such as;
- Institute of Professional Engineers
- Pacific Water and Wastewater Association
- Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries
- Electric Power Cooperation
- Ministry of Finance
- Chamber of Commerce
- Samoa Umbrella for Non Government Organisations (SUNGO)
- Scientific Research Organisation of Samoa (SROS)
- Civil Society Support Programme
Overview of Sector
Sector wide coordination is facilitated through the establishment of a robust coordination framework presented in Figure 1 below. Additionally, the framework defines the reporting structure within the Sector. The WSCU as part of its coordination role chairs the Technical Steering Committee which reports to the Joint Water Sector Steering Committee (Sector Apex Body).
Figure1 Sector Coordination Framework
The institutional framework in place is able to effectively coordinate and facilitate integration of planning, programming, implementation, monitoring and evaluation across the Sector. This is achieved through a hierarchy of committees:
- The Ministerial Coordination Committee (MCC) comprises Ministers from the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MNRE), Ministry of Health (MoH), Ministry of Finance (MoF), Ministry of Women, Community and Social Development (MWCSD), Ministry of Works, Transport and Infrastructure (MWTI) and respective Chief Executive Officers (CEOs). This committee is the interface between Cabinet Development Committee, Cabinet and the Sector. Their main task is to review policy issues affecting the Sector and advocate Sector issues at the political arena.
- The Joint Water Sector Steering Committee (JWSSC) operates at the CEO level, and comprises CEOs from key Implementing Agencies (IAs), Private Sector and NGOs with representatives from key development partners and reports to the MCC on national issues.
- Reporting to the JWSSC is the Technical Steering Committee (TSC) whose role is twofold; (i) to monitor technical and financial progress of sub-sector programs and (ii) to lead the development and / or review of Sector policies/strategies. The TSC is made up of IA coordinators or chairs of each of the sub-sector committees. The TSC is chaired by the Water Sector Coordination Unit (WSCU).
- Sub sector committees have been established for the following sub sectors which comprise the key technical areas of the Sector, each of which operates its own program of work, and sets its own goals, targets and outcomes:
- Water Supply
- Water Resources
- Drinking Water Quality
Flood MitigationIn addition, the Governance Sub Sector provides a support and coordination role to the above sub sectors. The Governance sub sector also provides the link to Disaster Management (and the Disaster Management Office, within the MNRE), which under this Sector Plan, will have a greater focus and enhanced capacity.
Scope of Sector Implementing Agencies Development Programs
The domain of the sector includes the regulation, development and use of all fresh water resources as well as the receiving coastal waters in Samoa. Over the years, sanitation has been a priority issue in the sector and following endorsement of the National Sanitation Policy by the Cabinet Development Committee in February 2010, a policy framework is now in place to improve wastewater systems and management in Samoa and securing it as a priority issue in the sector. Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction and Management are expected to have a growing impact on the sector and this needs to be mainstreamed in the new phase of the sector plan.
With the signing of a financing agreement with European Union under the 10th EDF for sector budget support from 2005-2015, the Samoa Government assumes ownership and leadership of sector development whilst development partners are continually encouraged to contribute to a government driven program. It is anticipated that sector budget support continues to root the water sector in a favourable public finance management and macroeconomic environment.
The transition to sector budget support led to a review of the existing institutional arrangements to ensure effective sector coordination and implementation of the sector wide programme. In doing so, care was taken to align the sector coordination framework with sectoral objectives, ensuring sector priorities are being addressed and measured against the sector performance management framework already in place.